A Taste of Art
What is street art: the basic guide
Where modern-day graffiti revolves around 'tagging' and text-based subject matter, street art is far more open. There are no rules in street art, so anything goes.

Murals, graffiti, wheat pasting, stenciling, stickers, freehand drawing, tape art and projecting videos.
Street art can be divided:

  • murals
  • graffiti (stencil, calligraffiti)
  • stickers
  • weatpaste
  • tape art etc.
Mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface. A distinguishing characteristic of mural painting is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture. In modern times, the term became better known with the Mexican muralism art movement (Diego Rivera, David Siqueiros and José Orozco). There are many different styles and techniques.

If we talk about the major definition of a mural from a graffiti, there is:

1) the use of the materials: acrylic paint is used mostly for murals; spray cans - for graffiti;
2) permission: mural art is always legal, graffiti can be both legal and illegal if its a protest, tagging, bombing;
3) the purpose: nowadays the murals are painted to picture a society, created from stories, values, dreams, the artist self-identification, when graffiti is mostly a protest art that calls to action;
4) the composition: in mural all the elements are harmoniously incorporated in the picture, when a graffiti can be a single piece with the background;
5) payment: the mural artists have a payment or promotion ( in case of the festivals, collaborations); the graffiti artists in a lot of cases make it for free.

The mural below is by Aaron Glasson and Celeste Byers
Graffiti - any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface. As a form of artistic expression, its often associated with subcultures as the rebel against authority. Graffiti in its origins was used to publicly display the artistic expressions in response to the lack of access to museums and art institutions, and the continuous strife, discrimination, and struggle of living in the city.

1) with spraycans (it is also created with marker pens, paint rollers, etching tools, fire extinguishers etc);
2) a major element is the aspect of anonymity

Nowadays, sometimes what is considered to be a mural and a graffiti can be different according to the artist view on his piece of work. On the photo there is the graffiti in the style of cholo art by Twin One.
Stencil is a piece of artwork when a piece of paper, plastic, or metal which has a design cut out of it. This piece of paper is placed on a surface and painted it so that paint goes through the holes and leaves a design on the surface. The benefits of stencil:

  • its fast to paint
  • has a political or social message
  • has a previous design of the pattern.

The most famous example of stencil art is Banksy. Some artists identify stencil as a part of graffiti art scene. The stencil bellow is by Lapiztola.
In Mexico we have a rich culture of stencil. The collective Lapiztola, Yescka, Karas Urbanas etc are one of the best representatives of the stencil art in Mexico.

One of the best stencil art you can see in Mexico City or Oaxaca, but as well all over the country as this type of art is getting popular nowadays.
Stickers - is a form of street art in which an image or message is publicly displayed using stickers. These stickers may promote a political agenda, comment on a policy or issue, or comprise a subcategory of graffiti.

Sticker artists use a variety of label types, including inexpensively purchased and free stickers, such as the United States Postal Service's Label 228 or name tags. Sticker art is a popular processing method to create artworks with a 3D effect. The artist cuts vinyl sheets and foam board components with a scalpel. With this components the artist glues a sticker art collage.
Wheatpaste refers to a method of creating or laying out publication pages. In general, wheatpaste is a homemade concoction used for putting up posters. It's relatively cheap and easy to make—a simple combination of flour, sugar, and water—and can be created in large quantities. Posters which have been put up with wheatpaste are referred to as wheatpastes.

When hanging unauthorized billboards, to reduce the danger of being caught, wheatpasters frequently work in teams or affinity groups.

The prominent representative of wheat paste in Mexico is Oaxaca city. Street art serves as the voice of the people. Wheatpaste are installed in an accessible and inclusive public forum, with active messaging that provides the ability to connect to all sectors of the community. While certain works are lighthearted in nature, the bulk of the paste art in Oaxaca revolves around sociopolitical commentary and criticism, along with purposeful calls to action.

The wheatpaste below is by Efedefroy
Tape art is an artwork created with adhesive tape such as duct tape or packing tape. It developed from urban art in the 1960s, as an alternative to the widely spread use of spray cans in the urban art scene. Tape can be used to produce a "stained glass" effect when applied to glass or plastic which is lit from behind. It can be attached to a wall to form the outline or an image, or can be shaped into three-dimensional sculptures.

Tape art can be installed quickly and almost silently, making it suitable for small or temporary urban art projects. No masking or covering is necessary. Tape is relatively easy to handle, and can be applied to various surfaces, such as stone, asphalt, wood, aluminum, sandwich panels or glass. Unlike spray paint art, tape art can be removed easily without leaving a permanent mark.

Materials for tape art vary depending on which tape is being used. Tape art can use duct tape, packing tape, masking tape or other products. Unlike traditional paintings and sculptures, tape art can be applied anywhere, including the doors, ceilings and floors of galleries. Duct tape can be used to construct three-dimensional sculptures.
This is very basic introduction guide to street art. There are much more types of street art you can identify (like calligraffiti, installations, type art etc). Feel free to share your opinion about your understanding and vision of street art.